The course uses syndicate exercises to practice learning and considers the importance of engagement between financiers and stakeholders to understand key costs and business drivers. The course looks at how to produce realistic budget profiles against control totals on an accruals basis and how to identify and cost financial risks in a forecast. It includes producing a forecast of out-turn and variance analysis and how to use in-year data to inform financial planning. The course uses HM Treasury frameworks and guidance and aspects of how they are applied in the MOD as a framework. It is primarily aimed at finance officers and set against a MOD context but the principles explored have broader applicability to non-MOD and wider government employees including non-finance professionals involved in a budget management process.